To create the mood of
columned Greek buildings
von Gloeden often used the courtyards of monasteries
as settingsfor his
The use of two models in
von Gloeden's work.
"il mio Moro,"
In February of 1977 the last surviving von Gloeden
model died in Taormina.
He was 87 years old.
This, one of von Gloeden's
most beautiful hotographs, employed one of his favorite models. It was entitled
"Attesa" — Expectation.
Wilhelm Von Gloeden
1856 - 1931
A MEMORY OF TAROMINA
From time to time a moment of artistic ferment burgeons in a place so remote and unlikely that the phenomenon can only be regarded as well surprising. Such a place was Taormina, Sicily at the turn of the 19th/20th centuries where an outburst of artistic enterprise resulted in the production of one of the most astonishing bodies of art photography ever created. It was the work of a singular, obsessed talent; the German baron, Wilhelm Von Gloeden (1856 - 1931).
The modern viewer might easily think of Von Gloeden as idiosyncratically apart from his contemporaries separate in a sense alone, laboring on Monte Tauro (in love with the youths and young men who were his models and helpers to be sure) yet somehow merely an eccentric, isolated fluke of photographic history. Nothing, however, could be further from the truth. Von Gloeden was responsible in a very fundamental way for the establishment of the social, psychological and artistic support which grew up around him. He did not operate in a vacuum of remote isolation, but imbibed the very real presence of a variegated, art prone society which he had been instrumental in attracting to the wild Coast of Messina.
In Risorgimento Italy Taormina was a virtually unknown (except to historians of Ancient Greece) backwater in a Sicily that was still largely inaccessible but for the necklace of railroad put down by Garibaldi and Cavour along the island's coast. From the 1880's, when another German resident, Otto Geleng, and Wilhelm Von Gloeden began to beckon many wealthy and aristocratic Europeans, until the 1930's when an older era came to its final, unhappy end there was a steady evolution which turned that theretofore unknown little town into one of the truly grand tourist resorts of the world.
Coupled with this evolution and substantially contributing to it was a fact never openly acknowledged, although everyone in Taormina knew all about it. The fact was that many, indeed the majority of the well-to-do foreigners who established permanent residences there, with the construction of beautiful villas or the conversion of wonderful medieval buildings, were homosexual men and not a few of them were artists; mostly gifted dilettantes or serious amateurs of the arts.
Very often their first awareness of Taormina was the sight of a Von Gloeden photograph. At the fin de siecle Taormina had already become a place where homosexual men of the late Victorian era found, and would continue to find, a hospitable and privileged atmosphere into and through the Edwardian era and The Jazz Age.
Situated on one of the most beautiful sites in the world and filled with the monumental remains of nearly 3000 years of Western civilation, the place satisfied every aesthetic and romantic notion of the period. Siculs, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Normans all had lived there and left their mark, and their bloodlines. It was in great measure because of that happy Mediterranean mix with its (to the Northerners) exotically realistic and pragmatic sexual attitudes that more northerly peoples were so rapturously divested by their first encounters with the youth and young men of the region. Unlike the Catholicism of the north, Sicilians and southern Italians still retained, however unconsciously, a great sum of pure Paganism in their traditions and attitudes. To men from north of the Alps the Sicilians seemed blessedly free of the sexual Puritanism, both Catholic and Protestant, so assiduously promoted in the 19th century. The frequent homosexual liaisons however driven by the usually combustible combination of sexuality and money (the foreigners were generally rich the Sicilians generally poor) at their inception regularly involved long term emotional imperatives.
A discernible pattern for such relationships developed early on. Many-a-young-man who consorted intimately with a foreign gentleman retained a special relationship with that man until his dying day. And yet, other aspects of life went on as usual. With very few notable exceptions the most common scenario was of a young Sicilian developing an intimate attachment to a foreign gentleman, eventually marrying and raising a family (always with significant assistance from the older friend) but never abandoning a special relationship with that friend. If it finally ended in sexual and monetary terms it rarely broke ties that bound them in what can only be called a familial sense. And yet, the relationship always retained something special, clearly different, and surprisingly widely known. It was just not talked about by the Sicilians. Indeed that rule of silence on the subject still obtains in Sicily at the end of the 20th century!
The most vivid example we have of such a liaison, and one of the earliest, is that of Von Gloeden and a Sicilian youth. Soon after he arrived in Taormina Von Gloeden took an adolescent house-boy into his home and into his bed. He called him Il Moro. It was the beginning of a relationship of passionate commitment that far outlasted any direct sexual involvement and was indeed to last as long as both of them lived. This reality was in no way lessened by Von Gloeden's frequent sexual adventures, nor by Il Moro's eventual marriage, a marriage which lasted for life and was locally reckoned to be a decent and happy one. When Il Moro died in the 1950's he was a father, a grandfather, and a great-grandfather, and yet, still quietly regarded by many as Wilhelm Von Gloeden's lover.
The beginning of their relationship was indeed the harbinger of a way of life which was to transform Taormina. From the late 19th century onward there developed not only an international enthusiasm for Gloeden's work, but also a local foreign colony congenial to and supportive of his amazing visual effort. The fact that his work was fraught with a barely hidden element of scandal signified and magnified by the mere thought of male nudity in the Victorian work added a special frission to the acquisition of his prints. It is safe to say that virtually no person of any importance or celebrity who visited Taormina from the last years of the 19th century until 1931 ever failed to spend time with the baron in his studio sales room or in his private quarters. The attentions of this rich, mobile and sophisticated public not only sustained him materially but also sustained his amour propre as a photographic artist. Of equal importance to his international recognition was the permanently resident community of foreigners for whose presence on the island he was, in effect, initially responsible. It was Von Gloeden's visual Arcadia which had originally attracted them.
Of essential importance in this mosaic of personalities was the fact that many of them were artists in their own right who functioned in a milieu which took for granted that, along with love (of whatever kind) art was the real work of life.
There was also, to be sure, a small, worldly colony of foreign heterosexuals (a community which was to become enormous after the Second World War) whose lives were intertwined with those of the gay residents and also, through love affairs and marriages, with the local Tarominese. Both parts of the foreign community had much in common in that they were, for the most part, of the same silken fabric of privilege, education and, in many instances, artistic accomplishment or patronage. Some were writers. Their presence lent glamour, prestige and a vast sum of passionate devotion to a small town in Sicily which they all deemed to be an earthly paradise.
A brief glimpse of just three of the many extraordinary foreigners who were Von Gloeden's friends and neighbors is both instructive and fascinating.
The first important arrival who came to stay and certainly the best painter of the many artists who followed - was a young Englishman; Robert Hawthorn Kitson. Born in Leeds in 1873, he was far and away the most elegant, cultivated and intellectual personality to settle in Taormina after Von Gloeden.
Kitson was the Scion of a distinguished English family which became immensely wealthy as a result of establishing the first commercial railway in the world (London to Birmingham) thereby becoming the parent company of all railway systems for some years to come. He first visited Taormina in 1898 at the age of 26 when his family adventured around Sicily by the coastal railroad. When they stopped off in Taormina he secretly visited Von Gloeden's studio every chance he had to steal away from his relatives. Like Gloeden before him, he knew at once that he had found his place of destiny. He went back to England only to make arrangements to transfer his life to Sicily forever and before the end of 1898 he was steeled into a rented house. By 1905 he had embarked on the construction of Casa Cuseni, a large Italianate villa of exceptional beauty and situation.
Robert Kitson knew he was homosexual very early on and determined not to let that fact damage his life. He was in the fortunate position of being able to much as Von Gloeden create his own world. As a painter of genuine ability he was very much fulfilled as a creative artist and was known to be absolutely serious about his work and greatly disciplined. But Kitson's paintings were not his only legacy to Taormina.
As a young art student in Leeds he had a brief, romantic liaison with an artist named Frank Brangwyn, later to become Sir Frank Brangwyn (1867 - 1956) The affair, though short-lived, resulted in a life-long friendship. Brangwyn was to become a highly successful painter and designer not only in Britain, but on the continent and in America as well. (His last major commission was the painting of some of the murals in the RCA building in Rockefeller center in New York in 1933.) It was, then, a happy collaboration which brought Brangwyn to Taormina in 1906 at Kitson's urgent invitation.
Robert Kitson, although a man of enormous classical appreciations, was also keenly interested in the best that modern design and decoration had to offer. At just about the time Kitson was creating the beauties of Casa Cuseni and its large gardens Brangwyn was totally engaged with the movement that proposed that professional artists were the right people to design furniture, fabrics, carpet, woodwork, metalwork, glass, mosaic, and so on. Kitson brought his old friend to Taormina to execute his dining room as a complete work of art and gave him carte blanche. Because of this undertaking and many others elsewhere in Europe, by 1914 Brangwyn was regarded as highly for his design and decoration as he was for his painting. And so, to this day, not withstanding the effects of time and loss, Taormina's Casa Cuseni houses albeit fragmentary a complex of furniture, paintings, and object de vertu by one of the foremost designers of the early 20th century.
During this same period Von Gloeden was romantically recording the youthful beauty of Kitson's handsome Tarominese lover in portraits and nudes and Brangwyn is known to have painted him during his visit in 1906. Indeed, at least one rare print of Carlo, in the nude, with his arm draped over what is almost certainly a Brangwyn painting of him still exists. Nearly all others were lost when Mussolini's fascists, in intimate cooperation with agents of the Vatican, destroyed countless hundreds of prints and over 80% of Gloeden's precious glass plates thus obliterating the images forever.
Carlos's special friendship with Kitson lasted for as long as both men lived and Kitson became an additional grandfather to his children. Carlos's descendants live in Taormina to this day, prosperous and respected hoteliers.
Kitson is also remembered in Taromina for more mundane but decidedly pleasant innovations. For example, he built the first private swimming pool and brought in one of the first motor cars Taromina had ever seen.
Although Brangwyn made it clear that he had great respect for Kitson's painting, Kitson insisted throughout his life that he was simply a dedicated amateur. Frank Brangwyn acceded to and probably agreed with Kitson's own estimate. Brangwyn referred to him as my friend, patron, and gifted pupil.
In the summer of 1981 The Commune of Taormina organized an impressive exhibition of Robert Kitson's paintings.